Of all the claims U.S. intelligence made about Iraq's arsenal in the fall and winter of 2002, it was a handful of
new charges that seemed the most significant: secret purchases of uranium from Africa, biological weapons being made in mobile
laboratories, and pilotless planes that could disperse anthrax or sarin gas into the air above U.S. cities.
By the time President Bush ordered U.S. troops to disarm Saddam Hussein of the deadly weapons he was allegedly trying
to build, every piece of fresh evidence had been tested -- and disproved -- by U.N. inspectors, according to a report commissioned
by the president and released Thursday.
"We offered eyes and ears,"
Hans Blix says of his U.N. team's work.
The work of the inspectors -- who had extraordinary access during their three months in Iraq between November 2002 and
March 2003 -- was routinely dismissed by the Bush administration and the intelligence community in the run-up to the war,
according to the commission led by former senator Charles S. Robb (D-Va.) and retired appellate court judge Laurence H. Silberman.
But the commission's findings, including a key judgment that U.S. intelligence knows "disturbingly little" about
nuclear programs in Iran and North Korea, are leading to calls for greater reliance on U.N. inspectors to test intelligence
where the United States has little or no access.
"U.N. inspectors are boots on the ground," said David Albright, a nuclear specialist who accompanied the International
Atomic Energy Agency to Iraq in the mid-1990s. Albright and others think the IAEA should be given greater access in Iran,
and returned to North Korea. It would be up to the agency's board, which includes the United States, to authorize increased
The Bush administration tussled with inspectors before the Iraq war and maintains a hostile relationship with the
IAEA, whose director, Mohamed ElBaradei, the United States is trying to replace this year. The administration also wants to
shut down a U.N. inspection regime led by Hans Blix that was set up to investigate biological, chemical and missile programs
During more than two years of investigations in Iran, the IAEA has "been critical in uncovering their secret activities
so we know the scope and the status of the nuclear programs and the problems," said Albright, who has exposed unknown nuclear
sites in Iran and has followed the IAEA's work there. "There is a tremendous amount of detail that the intelligence community
didn't have prior to the IAEA going in and intensifying the investigation."
The White House has not publicly presented intelligence to support its assertion that Iran has a nuclear weapons
program, as it did with Iraq. Instead, it routinely points to the IAEA investigation, Iran's large oil reserves and the secrecy
that surrounded Iran's nuclear program for nearly two decades.
The IAEA has not found evidence that Iran is using its nuclear energy program as a cover for bomb building, as the
administration claims. But those findings have been dismissed by some members of the administration.
John R. Bolton, nominated to be the next U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, has called the findings "simply impossible
Jonathan Tucker, who was a bioweapons inspector for the United Nations in Iraq during the 1990s, said inspectors
have limited access and rely heavily on intelligence that can be provided by powerful countries such as the United States.
"What they can provide is ground truth and legitimacy. If you hope to persuade countries to impose sanctions or other
measures on proliferators, the word of inspectors is valuable."
North Korea kicked out IAEA inspectors in December 2002, a move that deprived the intelligence community of a key
avenue of information about the closed country. The lack of access to North Korea, which has been judged to have the capacity
to build six to eight nuclear weapons, has been a source of frustration for the international agency.
But at the time of the IAEA's departure from Pyongyang, attention in Washington and in Vienna, where
the IAEA is based, was largely focused on Iraq.
Months before U.S. troops attacked Iraq in March 2003, the IAEA challenged every piece of evidence
the Bush administration offered to support claims of a nuclear program there, according to the commission.
In January, IAEA inspectors discovered that documents showing Iraq had tried to buy uranium from Niger were forged.
But the CIA chose to stick to the claim for another six months.
Two years earlier, the IAEA disputed CIA claims that Iraq was trying to buy black-market aluminum tubes for
a nuclear program. The IAEA assessment, which turned out to be accurate, was first shared with U.S. intelligence in July 2001,
according to the authors of the presidential commission report.
Blix's U.N. group tested evidence supplied by an Iraqi defector codenamed "Curveball," whose tales of mobile bioweapons
laboratories turned out to be fabrications, according to the report. Among Curveball's claims was that an Iraqi facility had
been redesigned, with a temporary wall, to allow mobile laboratories to slip in and out undetected.
"When United Nations Monitoring Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) inspectors visited the site on Feb.
9, 2003, they found that the wall was a permanent structure and could find nothing to corroborate Curveball's reporting,"
the commissioners wrote.
"We offered eyes and ears," Blix said in a telephone interview yesterday. "We knew a lot about the country, we examined
places, got intelligence tips about where to go and conducted 700 inspections at 500 sites in three months."
UNMOVIC also determined before the war that CIA claims about a fleet of pilotless Iraqi planes were incorrect. The
unmanned aerial vehicles did not have the capability to deliver chemical or biological weapons and were probably designed
for reconnaissance missions.
The Bush administration has prevented the IAEA from returning to Iraq since the invasion. UNMOVIC will
likely be dismantled unless the United States agrees to turn it into an international inspection force for biological weapons
and missile programs.
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