the fifth estate:
The Unauthorized Biography of Dick Cheney
American Vice-President Dick Cheney has walked the corridors of world power for three decades.
remarkable life story involves the relentless accumulation of power in every form.
Elected for a second term, he continues
to be one of the most powerful and well-connected men in the world.
The fifth estate will show how he accomplished this,
what it involved in terms of costs for others and what history's judgement could be.
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|I. ASCENT TO POWER|
JANUARY 30, 1941:
B. Cheney is born in Lincoln, Nebraska.
Cheney attends high school in Casper, Wyoming. He becomes football captain, top 10 student and meets his future
wife, homecoming Queen, Lynne Vincent.
Cheney, a Yale student, turns 18 and becomes eligible for the draft.
Jacob Plotkin was Cheney's Yale roommate.
"It's hard to flunk out of Yale. It's something
that one really has to put effort into. Yale at that time tried to make sure everybody who entered graduated.
Where others might spend some time on the
weekend studying, Dick was either talking, drinking or playing cards with his football buddies."
JUNE 14:Cheney drops out of Yale, returns to Wyoming and takes a job with the local power company.
was classified as 1-A, available for military service.
NOVEMBER 19: Cheney is arrested for drunk driving. (see the police court docket on the Smoking Gun website )
MARCH 20: Cheney
applies for his first student draft deferment.
JULY 23: Cheney applies for his second draft deferment after enrolling at the University
OCTOBER 14: Cheney
applies for his third student draft deferment. By now the Vietnam war has escalated following the Gulf of Tonkin resolution.
Cheney marries his high school sweetheart, Lynne.
1: Cheney gets his fourth draft deferment.
Cheney graduates and is once more listed as 1-A, ready for military service.
JANUARY 19: When
his wife was about 10 weeks pregnant, Cheney applies for 3-A status, the ''hardship'' exemption, which excludes men with children
or dependent parents. It is granted.
Cheney turns 26 and is no longer eligible for the draft.
Journalist Jim Mann had covered Dick Cheney's
career for 30 years and wrote Rise of the Vulcans: The History of Bush's War Cabinet.
"I found memos from Cheney about what salt
shakers should be used at White House dinners. Whether Betty Ford should have a headrest on the helicopter or not. Who gets
White House Christmas cards and who doesn't.
Cheney is a guy who started at the bottom.
He knows how the White House works, right down to the grass roots level. And he uses that to great effect as he raises higher
and higher in government."
Cheney wins a congressional scholarship with Wyoming Republican congressman William Steiger
and goes to Washington. Cheney travels to campuses to report on scenes of violent student unrest.
Cheney goes to work
for Donald Rumsfeld as his special assistant at the Office of Economic Opportunity.
AUGUST: Cheney joins
Gerald Ford’s presidential transition team when President Nixon resigns.
becomes Assistant to President Ford and Chief of Staff.
JUNE 18: Cheney
suffers his first heart attack.
Cheney is elected as a congressman from Wyoming.
Cheney becomes Chairman
of the Republican Policy Committee from 1981, a position he holds until 1987.
Cheney votes against
a House resolution calling for the release of Nelson Mandela and the recognition of the ANC.
Cheney is elected
House minority whip.
Cheney undergoes quadruple by-pass surgery to clear clogged arteries.
|II THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE|
MARCH: Cheney becomes
Secretary of Defense when President George H.W. Bush’s first choice, John Tower, is rejected by the Senate for personal
Cheney, when asked why he sought draft deferments during the Vietnam war said "I
had other priorities in the '60s than military service."
Reporter Jean Heller presented Soviet satellite
photos which did not show Iraqi troops amassed on the Saudi border to the Pentagon.
"It's what it (the photos) didn't show that's more important. What you expected
to see were tanks on the border. There was none that we could see.
I said, look, if you can prove to me that
our story isn't true, we won't run it. And they just ignored it.
They have never shown those (U.S. satellite
images) photos. Not then and not since."
1: Cheney gets briefing from General Norman Schwarzkopf about Iraqi threats against Kuwait.
AUGUST 2: Iraq invades Kuwait.
AUGUST: Cheney flies to Saudi Arabia to convince King Fahd to allow US troops into his country.
SEPTEMBER: The Pentagon says that 250,000 Iraqi troops with 1500 tanks are massed on the
Saudi border. The photos are never made public.
Soviet satellite imagery taken that day shows no troops near the border.
(see the photos)
Heller learns about the Soviet satellite imagery and presents them to Dick Cheney's office at the Pentagon. They ignore the
JANUARY: Operation Desert Storm begins.
In the wake of Desert Storm, Cheney hires Halliburton to put out 320 well-head fires and
engage Halliburton subsidiary Brown and Root to rebuild courthouses, schools, utilities, police stations, and computer systems
JUNE 10: Cheney and the troops who fought in Desert Storm are honored with a ticker tape
parade up Broadway in New York.
JULY 3: Secretary Cheney is awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George
H.W. Bush for his work on the Gulf War. 1992
pays Halliburton, Brown and Root $8.9 million for two studies on how to downsize the military.
AUGUST: Halliburton is selected by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to do all the work needed
to support the military for five years. This is the same plan it had itself drawn up.
NOVEMBER: Bill Clinton elected president. Cheney's term as Secretary of Defense is over.
III HALLIBURTON YEARS
Business reporter Dan Briody says that Halliburton
did business with both the U.S. government and it's enemies.
"Dick Cheney is simply the latest in a succession
of politicians that Halliburton has used to secure government contracts.
He (Cheney) says he wasn't aware
that Halliburton was doing business with Iraq while he was CEO...if you believe that either he's a very bad CEO for not being
aware or he's not telling the truth."
DECEMBER: Halliburton provides assistance to U.S. troops in Somalia.
Cheney sets up Political
Action Committee and ponders run for presidency. The CEO of Halliburton contributes to his PAC. Halliburton will later be
awarded contracts after the invasion of Iraq.
On a fishing trip
with Halliburton CEO Thomas H. Cruikshank, and other captains of industry in New Brunswick, Cheney is asked if he would be
willing to become Halliburton’s CEO.
MARCH: President Clinton signs an order prohibiting
"new investments [in Iran] by U.S. persons, including commitment of funds or other assets."
U.S. companies are prohibited from performing services "that would benefit the Iranian oil industry." Companies
face fines of up to $500,000 and individuals may receive 10 years in jail for breaking the embargo.
MAY 6: President Clinton imposes a near total U.S. economic embargo on Iran.OCTOBER: Cheney becomes CEO and Chairman of Halliburton.
During his five year stint
at Halliburton, the company wins $2.3 billion in federal contracts, almost double the total of the previous five years, and
another $1.5 billion in taxpayer-insured loans.
Halliburton is fined almost 4 million for selling products to Libya
that could be used to trigger a nuclear program.
Cheney, acting as head of Halliburton, says
in a video for auditing company Arthur Andersen, "I get good advice, if you will, from their people based
upon how we're doing business and how we're operating, over and above just sort of the normal by-the-books auditing arrangement,
They've got the traditional role to fill as our auditors...They do that extraordinarily well.” Arthur Andersen
will collapse in the fallout of the Enron scandal five years later.
Cheney tests the waters for a presidential run, but manages to raise only $1 million.
Lyndon Berzowsky was the U.S. export enforcement
officer who supervised the case against Mahdi.
"Once these acts became illegal and he (Mahdi)
knew it was illegal to do it, then he continued to do it. He was charged with violating a U.S. law.
Let me assure you that had we had the evidence
to go after, whether it was Halliburton or any other company we certainly would."
22: Abdulamir Mahdi, an Iraqi who'd come to Canada in his 20's owned a business that supplied oil fields in Iran with North
American parts. His Toronto office places an order for $41,000 worth of Halliburton spare parts for a cementing unit in Iran.
says before before the deals, he consulted with lawyers and Canada Customs who told him that the US embargo didn't apply to
SEPTEMBER 25: Halliburton Energy Services prepares an invoice for spare parts that have
been sold to Abdulamir Mahdi. The invoice puts Kuwait as the final destination for the parts. In fact, the equipment is headed
for Kala Naft in Iran.
OCTOBER 7: In a purchase separate from the Mahdi transaction, Kala Naft’s London office,
the purchasing arm for the National Iranian Oil Company asks Halliburton subsidiary in Dubai to send a price quote for purchases
for the Iranian oil industry.
OCTOBER 16: Mahdi’s office receives a statement of compliance from Halliburton Energy
Services in Texas saying the parts he ordered has been inspected and meet Halliburton and industry standards.
OCTOBER 30: Spare parts purchased by Mahdi are shipped to Canada for a Halliburton cement unit in Iran.
is opposed to the U.S. embargo and lobbies congress against the Iran/Libya sanctions bill.
Abdulamir Mahdi sold Halliburton's and other
parts to Iran. He was arrested and spent four years in U.S. custody for evading export laws. He wrote a letter to Dick Cheney.
"If I'm guilty, you're guilty. If you're
innocent, I'm innocent. You did business with the same country that I did."
the purchase of Dresser Industries for $7.7 billion.
After the purchase, numerous asbestos related lawsuits hit the
hybrid company. The claims forced several Halliburton divisions into bankruptcy. Halliburton’s stock falls 80 percent
in one year.
Mahdi is arrested in Florida during a sting operation. At the same time his office in Toronto and his home are searched by
NOVEMBER 22: Abdulamir Mahdi receives a 51-month sentence on one count of conspiracy to
evade export regulations for sending equipment to Iran and Iraq. (read about the case )
Halliburton opens an office in Tehran while Cheney is still CEO. At the same time, Halliburton ends its presence in Iraq.
SPRING: George Bush asks Cheney to help him find a vice-presidential running mate.
JUNE 13: Cheney tells the World Petroleum Congress in Calgary “we’re
kept out of there primarily by our own government, which has made a decision that U.S. firms should not be allowed to invest
significantly in Iran and I think that’s a mistake.
Democratic senator Frank Lautenberg says
that Halliburton's business with Iran is unethical and possibly illegal.
"To be looking for breaks in the law that
permit them (Halliburton) to profit while this hostility (with Iran) is in front of us is unacceptable under any condition."
JULY: Cheney says he never
voted against releasing Mandela from jail. He says he was only voting against imposing sanctions, even though sanctions were
never mentioned in the House vote.
JULY 25: Bush tells the press that he has chosen Cheney to be his running mate.
JULY 30: Cheney says he actually wanted Mandela out of prison"Well, certainly
I would have loved to have Nelson Mandela released. I don't know anybody who was for keeping him in prison. Again, this was
a resolution of the U.S. Congress, so it wasn't as though if we passed it, he was going to be let out of prison."
AUGUST 16: Cheney quits Halliburton to run as Bush’s vice-president. He exits Halliburton
with a stock payoff worth $30 million.
IV MR. VICE-PRESIDENT
Investigative journalist Seymour Hersh says
that Cheney was insistent on invading Iraq from the beginning.
"Saddam is ousted. You get a moderate Baathist
regime and a democracy flows out - like water out of a fountain. And not only will democracy flow in Iraq. It will flow into
Syria. The Iranians will also see the light.
They (Cheney and others) believed this.
Utopian, idealist, crazy."
OCTOBER 24: Halliburton
announces layoffs and assets sales because of weakness in its construction and engineering businesses. Analysts reduce Halliburton’s
OCTOBER 25: Halliburton announces it is under a grand jury investigation for over-billing
the government of California.
NOVEMBER: Cheney suffers his fourth heart-attack.
NOVEMBER 13: It is reported that Halliburton stock has lost between $3 and $4 billion of
its total market value.
Dressers Industries asbestos problem and weak engineering portfolio is blamed. Democrats question
if Cheney had insider information when he sold his stock two months earlier for $30 million.
During the election campaign Cheney tells ABC News. “I had a firm
policy that we wouldn’t do anything in Iraq, even arrangements that were supposedly legal.”
during his time as CEO, Halliburton was selling millions of dollars to Iraq in supplies for its oil industry. The deals were
done through old subsidiaries of Dresser Industries. It was done under the auspices of the corrupt UN Oil for Food Program.
Halliburton worked with Iran and Libya as well, using its own subsidiaries.
JANUARY 19: Dick
Cheney is sworn in as Vice President of the United States.
JANUARY 29: President Bush announces the formation of the National Energy Policy Development
Group in Cheney’s office. He announces that Cheney will chair the group.
FEBRUARY 2: Wall Street Journal publishes expose on Halliburton’s Tehran office. (read
the article )
Abdulamir Mahdi writes a letter to Cheney complaining that he is in jail for violating the Iranian embargo while
the Vice President, who did the same thing, is free.
MARCH 5: Cheney has balloon angioplasty performed at George Washington University Hospital
after suffering chest pains.
APRIL 19: Representatives John Dingell and Henry Waxman, Ranking Members of the House Committee
on Energy and Commerce, send a letter to the General Accounting Office, seeking to obtain information about National Energy
Policy Development Group. They wanted to find out who had participated in the report.
MAY 16: Cheney presents to President Bush a report entitled National Energy Policy, which
recommended the adoption of the national energy policy that had been developed by the NEPDG. (read the National Energy Policy )
JUNE 21: Cheney’s office sends 77 pages of miscellaneous documents supposedly as a responsive reply to
GAO’s request for documents. The package of documents contain pages with dollar amounts but no indication of the nature
of purpose of the expenditure. Also included was the executive director’s credit card receipt for a pizza. Requests
by the GAO for additional information was denied.
Intelligence specialist Greg Thielman says his State Department Office
was receiving information that was different from what the White House was saying.
"Their starting point was not 'let's try
to figure out what is going on' but 'let's see what kind of information we can come up with to justify the policy line we
want to pursue'.
Cheney was the driving force behind an orchestrated
presentation to the American public of a different version of reality than the reality we saw."
AUGUST 2: Cheney sends a letter to the Senate and House of Representatives, stating “actions undertaken by an agent of the Congress, the Comptroller General, which exceeded his lawful authority and
which, if given effect, would unconstitutionally interfere with the functioning of the executive branch.”
says the GAO’s demand for documents compromise “the confidentiality of communications among
a President, a Vice-President, the President’s other senior advisors and others.”
Cheney also states
that he had provided "documents responsive to the Comptroller General's inquiry concerning the costs associated
with the (Energy task force's work.)" Cheney was apparently writing about the 77 pages.
SEPTEMBER 11: Al Qaeda attacks in New York and Washington. In the wake of the attacks, Dick
Cheney reportedly is taken to Raven Rock, a top-secret military base. He orders U.S. military fighters to shoot down any civilian
planes that may have been hijacked.
Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Karen Kwiatkowski
worked at the Pentagon along side the 'Office of Special Plans' a group that worked with Cheney on intelligence matters.
"When I heard those (President Bush's) speeches
I recognized many of the anecdotes. Having seen the intelligence I knew this was a manipulation of the information. It was
cherry picked information, out of context information.
It bothered me a great deal because I saw
it to be conscious manipulation. Not an oversight but consciously done.
If you don't tell Dick Cheney what he wants
to hear, you're out of a job."
JANUARY: Sierra Club sues Cheney, et al, to get documents related
to the National Energy Development Group. (read a report from the Sierra Club )
FEBRUARY: Ambassador Joe Wilson is told by the CIA that Cheney is interested in an allegation
that Iraq had tried to purchase Yellow Cake uranium from Niger. Wilson goes to Niger to investigate and concludes the rumour
FEBRUARY 22: David Walker, the Comptroller of the General Accounting Office, files a lawsuit
in U.S. District Court to get access to records relating to the activities of the National Energy Development Group. (see
the document .pdf file)
JUNE 22: A memo written by INC (Iraqi National Council) lobbyist Entifadh Qunbar to a U.S.
Senate committee lists John Hannah, a senior national-security aide on Cheney's staff, as one of two "U.S. governmental recipients"
for reports generated by an intelligence program being run by the INC and which was then being funded by the State Department.
The letter shows Cheney's office was getting intelligence from a highly suspect source.
AUGUST 26: Cheney tells an audience of veterans "There’s no doubt
that Saddam Hussein now has weapons of mass destruction [and that he will use them] against our friends, against our allies
and against us.”
Selling the nuclear threat became key to convincing
Americans to support the war.
DECEMBER 9: U.S. District Court Judge John Bates dismisses the high profile lawsuit filed
by David Walker, the Comptroller of the General Accounting Office, against Vice President Dick Cheney.
Imad Khadduri, formerly a top Iraqi nuclear
scientist, says the bombing during the first Gulf War destroyed Iraq's nuclear program - and it was never re-built.
"On the night I heard President Bush
enunciating his clear intention of invading Iraq on the pretext of a nuclear weapon program, I was struck by the incredulity
of that charge."
28, 2003: President Bush gives his State of the Union Address where he presents a case against Saddam Hussein and states that
"The British government has learned that Saddam Hussein recently sought significant quantities of
uranium from Africa". (see the address )
FEBRUARY 7: The General Accounting Office abandons its efforts to obtain records about the operation of the
Vice President's Task Force on Energy Policy.
The Comptroller says while he believes the decision of the Judge Bates
was incorrect, to pursue it would take too much time and resources. He also points out that private litigants were still pursuing
the Cheney documents.
MARCH: Cheney declares "we believe that he [Saddam Hussein] has in fact
reconstituted nuclear weapons."
Cheney publicly states mid-March that U.S. troops would be "greeted as
liberators” in Iraq.
MARCH 5: Army Corps of Engineers writes in an e-mail that a contract for restoring Iraqi
oil fields is being coordinated with Cheney’s office. Three days later a Halliburton subsidiary was awarded the $7 billion
MARCH 19: U.S. begins Operation Iraqi Freedom. Baghdad is bombed.
APRIL 7: Newsweek reveals that Cheney is still receiving annual compensation from Halliburton
for his tenure as the company CEO. This while the U.S. military was giving contracts worth potentially billions of dollars
APRIL 8: California Democratic representative Henry Waxman, joined by Democratic representative
John Dingell, request a General Accounting Office investigation, writing that 'ties' between Cheney and Halliburton 'have
raised concerns about whether the company has received favorable treatment from the administration. This
is their second request concerning Cheney.
In The State of the Union Address President
Bush repeated a rumour that Iraq had recently purchased uranium from Africa. Joe Wilson, a former ambassador to Africa knew
that it wasn't true.
"It become clear to me that there's
been a deliberate attempt on the part of some of the members of government to deceive the U.S. Congress and deceive the American
people ... deceive the world as to the nature of the threat posed by Saddam's nuclear program."
JULY 6: Ambassador Joe Wilson writes an article
for the New York Times criticizing the Bush’s state of the the Union address for including the allegation that Iraq
had tried to obtain yellow cake uranium from Niger. (read the article )
JULY 14: Syndicated columnist Robert Novak reveals that Ambassador Joe Wilson’s wife
is a CIA operative. That information, he writes, came from two senior administration officials. This leak violates U.S. law.
(read the article )
AUGUST 25: The GAO releases a report called Energy Task Force: Process Used to Develop
the National Energy Policy.” (read the report .pdf file)
SEPTEMBER 14: Cheney repeats widely discredited report that 9/11 hijacker Muhammad Atta
met with an Iraqi intelligence officer in Prague in 2001.
Bush publicly admits there is no evidence linking Iraq to
September 11 terrorist attacks.
DECEMBER 15: U.S. Supreme Court agrees to hear Cheney appeal a lower court order that Cheney
turn over documents related to the Bush administration’s Energy Task Force. Cheney had been fighting efforts to disclose
the documents for three years.
Former CIA director James Woolsey doesn't
believe that the intelligence gathering was biased - nor does he think the war was unwarranted.
"I wasn't present in any of those conversations,
but whether the Vice-President said something with a frown on his face or a smile doesn't matter. The CIA directors job is
to encourage people to call it straight and it's their job to call it straight.
I think the President's made a good
case that in a world of people like Saddam, Khameinin, Kim Jong II - that waiting for the chemical, biological and nuclear
weapons program to mature is a bad idea."
JANUARY: Dick Cheney
goes duck hunting with US Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia.
Halliburton states in an SEC filing "Since
[Cheney's] nomination as vice president, Halliburton has been and continues to be the focus of allegations, some of which
appear to be made for political reasons by political adversaries of the vice president and the current Bush administration.
We expect that this focus and these allegations will continue and possibly intensify as the 2004 elections draw nearer.”
Treasury department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control begins investigation into allegations that Halliburton may have
violated the U.S. embargo against Iran through a subsidiary based in Dubai.
FEBRUARY 3: Halliburton is accused of overcharging the U.S. military $36 million for meals
at a U.S. base in Kuwait.
FEBRUARY: Justice Department investigation into allegations that Halliburton paid $180 million
in bribes to Nigerian officials to get contract to build a natural gas plant in the late 1990s, when Cheney was still CEO.
Halliburton, in its annual report, says U.S. government contracts accounted for 26 percent
of its revenues in 2003. That is up from 10 percent the year before.
MARCH: The Pentagon asks the justice department to help investigate allegations that Halliburton
overcharged for fuel in Iraq by more than $80 million.
MARCH 18: Scalia releases a 21 page memo refusing to recuse himself from the Cheney appeal
on the Energy Task Force lawsuit. Scalia had been asked to recuse himself because of a duck-hunting trip he took with Cheney
in January. (read the memo)
APRIL 8: Two congressmen, Henry Waxman and John Dingell, ask the General Accounting Office
to investigate ties between Cheney and Halliburton and whether the company has received favourable treatment from the Administration.
Democratic Senator Frank Lautenberg says
Halliburton has profited from the war with Iraq.
"They've overcharged for food and lodging,
they've overcharged for gasoline, trucking - all kinds of things. Their behaviour has been awful.
There's no doubt that he (Dick Cheney)
is a very influential person in the White House, that he still has some contact with Halliburton."
JUNE: U.S. media reports that Dick Cheney had been questioned about the leak of the identity
of Valerie Plame, the CIA-officer married to Joe Wilson.
JULY: A federal grand jury in Houston subpoenas documents for Halliburton
as it investigates allegations that the company may have violated the US embargo against dealing with Iran.
AUGUST: Halliburton settles with the Security and Exchange Commission, agreeing to pay $7.5
million for not disclosing a change in its accounting practices that allowed it to report higher earnings in 1998 and 1999.
The SEC accused Halliburton of hindering its investigation.
OCTOBER 5: Cheney meets Democratic Vice-Presidential challenger
John Edwards in a televised debate.
The U.S. Attorney investigating the Valerie Plame leak says his investigation is completed, except
for the testimony of two reporters who refused to reveal their sources of information.
OCTOBER 13: Democratic Presidential nominee John Kerry causes an uproar when he refers to Cheney's
daughter Mary as a lesbian. Lynn Cheney tells reporters, "the only thing I can conclude is that (Kerry) is not a good man."
NOVEMBER 2: Cheney is re-elected Vice President.
MARCH 23: Halliburton tells
New York City Comptroller that none of its subsidiaries will bid for work in Iran, however, the company will complete work
already started in that country.
MARCH 31: The Presidential Commission looking into intelligence capabilities in Iraq regarding weapons
of mass destruction writes that the documents purporting to show Iraq had purchased uranium for Niger had been forged.
APRIL 14: Nine Democrats on the House Intelligence Committee send a letter to U.S. Attorney General
expressing grave concerns that no one has been arrested for leaking the name of CIA officer Valerie Plame to the press.
APRIL 5: Army announces it will withhold $55 million out of $200 million in payments it made to Halliburton
in 2003 for providing dining services for troops in Iraq. Despite the allegations of overcharging by Halliburton, the army
also announced it will pay the company $1.18 billion to feed troops in Iraq and Kuwait.
APRIL 12: A report released by Pentagon auditors reveals that Halliburton, may have overcharged the
US government by $212 million for work in Iraq.
APRIL 15: Cheney releases his tax returns. His filings show that he earned $194,852 in deferred compensation
from Halliburton in 2004.
Here is a list of sources that the fifth estate used for the timeline of Dick Cheney's life.
York Times, various articles
New Yorker, various articles
Rise of the Vulcans:The History of Bush's
War Cabinet, by James Mann (Vicking Books)
White House Biography of Cheney
1986 CQ Almanac, p. 86-H, vote #304
Post, various articles
Texas Monthly, various articles
Business Week, various articles
Street Journal, various articles
Halliburton’s Destructive Engagement, by Kenny Bruno and Jim Vallette,
Judgment in Criminal Case, United States of America Vs Abdulamir Mahdi
Dick Cheney, Iran and Halliburton, Report by the Office of Senator Frank Lautenberg
NBC, "Meet the
Energy Task Force: Process Used to Develop the National Energy Policy. GAO report 03-894
GAO’s Efforts to Obtain NEPDG Documents from the Office of the Vice President, April 19, 2001 to August 25, 2003
M Walker Vs Richard B Cheney. US District Court for the District of Columbia. Cv 02cv00340)
Time Magazine, various
Newsweek, various articles
Los Angeles Times, various articles
Associate Press, various articles
CBC the fith estate